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J Clin Invest. 1985 Dec;76(6):2306-11.

Insulin-mediated reduction of whole body protein breakdown. Dose-response effects on leucine metabolism in postabsorptive men.

Abstract

In vivo effects of insulin on plasma leucine and alanine kinetics were determined in healthy postabsorptive young men (n = 5) employing 360-min primed, constant infusions of L-[1-13C]leucine and L-[15N]alanine during separate single rate euglycemic insulin infusions. Serum insulin concentrations of 16.4 +/- 0.8, 29.1 +/- 2.7, 75.3 +/- 5.0, and 2,407 +/- 56 microU/ml were achieved. Changes in plasma 3-methyl-histidine (3-MeHis) were obtained as an independent qualitative indicator of insulin-mediated reduction in proteolysis. Hepatic glucose output was evaluated at the lowest insulin level using D-[6,6-2H2]glucose. The data demonstrate a dose-response effect of insulin to reduce leucine flux, from basal values of 77 +/- 1 to 70 +/- 2, 64 +/- 3, 57 +/- 3, and 52 +/- 4 mumol(kg X h)-1 at the 16, 29, 75, and 2,407 microU/ml insulin levels, respectively (P less than 0.01). A parallel, progressive reduction in 3-MeHis from 5.8 +/- 0.3 to 4.3 +/- 0.3 microM was revealed. Leucine oxidation estimated from the 13C-enrichment of expired CO2 and plasma leucine (12 +/- 1 mumol[kg X h]-1) and from the 13C-enrichment of CO2 and plasma alpha-ketoisocaproate (19 +/- 2 mumol[kg X h]-1) increased at the 16 microU/ml insulin level to 16 +/- 1 and 24 +/- 2 mumol(kg X h)-1, respectively (P less than 0.05 for each), but did not increase at higher insulin levels. Alanine flux (206 +/- 13 mumol(kg X h)-1) did not increase during the clamp, but alanine de novo synthesis increased in all studies from basal rates of 150 +/- 13 to 168 +/- 23, 185 +/- 21, 213 +/- 29, and 187 +/- 15 mumol(kg X h)-1 at 16, 29, 75, and 2,407 microU/ml insulin levels, respectively (P less than 0.05). These data indicate the presence of insulin-dependent suppression of leucine entry into the plasma compartment in man secondary to a reduction in proteolysis and the stimulation of alanine synthesis during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia.

PMID:
3908486
PMCID:
PMC424354
DOI:
10.1172/JCI112240
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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