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Microbiol Immunol. 1986;30(11):1141-9.

Evaluation of the efficacy of split-product trivalent A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and B influenza vaccines: reactogenicity, immunogenicity and persistence of antibodies following two doses of vaccines.


The reactogenicity and immunogenicity of Tween-ether split trivalent A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and B influenza vaccine in primary school children aged seven to 12 years, and the persistence of antibodies following two doses of vaccine were studied during 1980-1984. Adverse reactions were infrequent, and, even when reported, were chiefly local ones, mild in nature and of short duration. Most of the reactions were less frequent after the second dose than after the first dose. Most of the systemic reactions occurred during the intervaccination period with almost equal frequency, indicating that careful consideration is required to judge whether they were induced by vaccination or not. This vaccine had induced adequate hemagglutination inhibiting (HAI) antibody because the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of the vaccinees were two- to eightfold higher than those of the nonvaccinees to any of the vaccine antigens following two doses of vaccine. In general, the responses to A(H3N2) virus were the best among the vaccine antigens through the four vaccination seasons, but there was a tendency to show a poorer response to the same type (or subtype) of virus antigen as the causative one during a protracted epidemic. The antibodies induced by either vaccination or natural infection were shown to persist for less than a year, supporting the recommendation for annual vaccination.

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