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J Immunol. 1987 Mar 1;138(5):1469-74.

Tumor necrosis factor is chemotactic for monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.


Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induced migration across polycarbonate and nitrocellulose filters of human peripheral blood monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, TNF was active in inducing migration at concentrations less than 1 U/ml, and maximal responses (observed at greater than 100 U/ml) were comparable to those elicited by standard reference chemoattractants (FMLP, 10 nM; activated human serum, 5%). Checkerboard analysis performed by seeding different concentrations of TNF above and below the filter revealed that maximal induction of migration required a positive concentration gradient between the lower and upper compartments and that TNF elicited an actual chemotactic response in phagocytes. An anti-TNF rabbit antiserum and anti-TNF mouse monoclonal antibody abolished the chemotactic activity of TNF. Recombinant lymphotoxin was also chemotactic for phagocytes, and its activity was blocked by an anti-lymphotoxin antiserum. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and blood large granular lymphocytes did not respond chemotactically to TNF under conditions in which appropriate reference chemoattractants were active. The chemotactic activity of TNF may serve to recruit phagocytic cells from the blood compartment to amplify resistance against noxious agents.

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