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Nature. 1986 Oct 23-29;323(6090):734-8.

Complete protein sequence and identification of structural domains of human apolipoprotein B.

Abstract

Epidemiological, pathological and genetic studies show a strong positive correlation between elevated plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the risk of premature coronary heart disease. Apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 is the sole protein component of LDL and is the ligand responsible for the receptor-mediated uptake and clearance of LDL from the circulation. Apo B-100 is made by the liver and is essential for the assembly of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum and for their secretion into the plasma. VLDL transports triglyceride to peripheral muscle and adipose tissue, where the triglyceride is hydrolysed by lipoprotein lipase. The resultant particle, relatively enriched in cholesteryl ester, constitutes LDL. LDL delivers cholesterol to peripheral tissues where it is used for membrane and steroid hormone biosynthesis and to the liver, the only organ which can catabolize and excrete cholesterol. Plasma LDL levels are therefore determined by the balance between their rate of production from VLDL and clearance by the hepatic LDL (apo B/E) receptor pathway. Here we report the complete 4,563-amino-acid sequence of apo B-100 precursor (relative molecular mass (Mr) 514,000 (514K] determined from complementary DNA clones. Numerous lipid-binding structures are distributed throughout the extraordinary length of apo B-100 and must underlie its special functions as a nucleus for lipoprotein assembly and maintenance of plasma lipoprotein integrity. A domain enriched in basic amino-acid residues has been identified as important for the cellular uptake of cholesterol by the LDL receptor pathway.

PMID:
3773997
DOI:
10.1038/323734a0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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