Send to

Choose Destination
J Pers Assess. 1986 Summer;50(2):171-81.

The predictive validity of subtle and obvious empirically derived psychological test items under faking conditions.


The relative contributions of subtle and obvious item endorsements to the prediction of a relevant criterion were assessed under faking and control ("honest") conditions. The MMPI and a nonconformity questionnaire were first administered to 100 male college students. Items on the Pd scale and 101 additional MMPI items that correlated significantly with the nonconformity questionnaire were then rated by 38 other male college students for apparent relationship to psychopathology. From these ratings, a scale (designated PdX) was constructed, which consisted of 21 subtle and 21 obvious items. After a third group of 98 male college students completed the nonconformity questionnaire, they were asked to respond to the items of the Pd and PdX subscales under control, fake-good, and fake-bad instructions. Significant correlations between the nonconformity scale and certain PdX and Pd subscales were found only for the control group. Implications for test construction and for clinical interpretation under faking conditions are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center