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Radiology. 1986 Sep;160(3):803-10.

Comparison of respiratory triggering and gating techniques for the removal of respiratory artifacts in MR imaging.


Respiratory movement degrades magnetic resonance (MR) images of the chest and abdomen by increasing noise through the production of "ghost" artifacts and by decreasing edge sharpness in moving structures. Respiratory gating, which limits data acquisition to end-expiration, is successful in restoring edge sharpness and reducing ghosts but increases imaging time two to three times, which limits its use to sequences with short repetition times (TRs). To overcome this limitation, an alternative technique, respiratory triggering, was developed, which triggers the acquisition of an MR section at a fixed point on the respiratory cycle. This technique restores edge sharpness and reduces ghosts, but unlike gating, it can be used to produce an image at any phase of the respiratory cycle. Triggering requires long TRs since the TR is limited to the respiratory period (TP) or one-half of TP, depending on whether the same section is triggered once or twice during a single respiratory cycle. Gating and triggering were evaluated and compared for single-section and multi-section imaging of both volunteers and patients. The authors conclude that when a chest or abdominal survey is required, triggering takes less time than gating if TRs are required that exceed one-fifth of TP.

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