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Theor Popul Biol. 1986 Apr;29(2):161-97.

Analysis of linkage disequilibrium in an island model.


Linkage disequilibria for two loci in a finite island model were parameterized. The total linkage disequilibrium was decomposed into three components, gametic, demic, and population, for which corresponding unbiased estimators were established. Other statistics encountered provided measures of differentiation corresponding to the hierarchical structure of the ecological model. Under the assumption of linkage equilibrium, the variances and covariances of these estimators and statistics were formulated in terms of descent measures, functions of gene frequencies, and the numbers of individuals, demes, and populations sampled. The functions of gene frequencies fall into two classes, one representing the differentiation of genes at each locus, and the other representing the association of genes between the loci. For a neutral model with extinction, migration, and linkage, transition equations were derived for the descent measures which also take into account deme size and numbers of dems within the population. With the addition of unequal mutation rates for a finite number of alleles at each locus, the transition equations were solved for the descent measures in the equilibrium state. This permitted the exact numerical evaluation of the effects of the sampling and ecological dimensions and of extinction, migration, and mutation rates in any parameter range. Some numerical results were presented for the effects of linkage, extinction, migration, and sampling on the variances of various measures of linkage disequilibrium and genetic differentiation. Also, some results were compared with the approximate numerical results of Ohta which agreed fairly well in the parameter ranges she considered, but not so well in other ranges.

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