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J Pers Soc Psychol. 1986 Jan;50(1):106-15.

Self-promotion is not ingratiating.


Pairs of subjects participated in two unstructured conversations spaced one week apart. In the second session, one subject of the pair was asked to participate either as an ingratiator or as a self-promoter. Naive target subjects clearly distinguished between presenters attempting to appear likable or competent. As verified by observer subjects, ingratiators used reactive verbal and nonverbal behaviors, whereas promoters used proactive behaviors. Preparation time did not produce differential behavioral tactics. The results are discussed in terms of the use of conversational resources to produce the attributions of likability and competence.

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