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Dev Biol. 1986 May;115(1):140-7.

A satellite cell mitogen from crushed adult muscle.


Single fiber-satellite cell units from skeletal muscle of adult rats were used to study the regulation of satellite cell proliferation. The satellite cells remained quiescent during culture in serum-containing medium but could be induced to enter the cell cycle by exposure to a saline extract of crushed adult muscle. The activity in the extract has a molecular weight greater than 30K and is heat and trypsin sensitive. The mitogenic activity does not result from transferrin. Little or no activity was obtained from crushed extracts of heterologous tissues. Proliferation of myogenic cells from rat embryos was also stimulated by the muscle mitogen but growth of muscle fibroblasts was not enhanced. The time response of satellite cell proliferation after exposure to the muscle mitogen showed that the cells enter DNA synthesis after a lag period of 18 hr and proliferate with a generation time of 12 hr. This confirms that satellite cells in adult muscle are in G0, or an extended G1. The mitogen is also effective in stimulating muscle growth and myoblast fusion in vivo when injected into 1-week-old rat pups. These experiments suggest that muscle regeneration is initiated by the release of an endogenous mitogen from traumatized muscle.

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