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Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1987 Oct;(223):59-64.

The frozen shoulder. Diagnosis and management.

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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, D.C.


The differentiation between the stiff and painful shoulder without any joint capsule involvement and with capsule involvement (true adhesive capsulitis) must be established before a rational treatment can be prescribed. Arthrography establishes the correct diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis. Treatment of the stiff and painful shoulder is through prevention and exercise. The treatment of adhesive capsulitis includes prevention, exercises, manipulation, and capsulotomy. Each treatment method is determined by specific criteria. Arthroscopy is not useful for either diagnosis or treatment of adhesive capsulitis but may be useful for recognition of the four stages of the disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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