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J Clin Psychiatry. 1987 Sep;48(9):376-7.

Cocaine abuse and adult attention deficit disorder.


Cocaine increases dopaminergic tone in the central nervous system, and hyperprolactinemia has been found in chronic cocaine abusers. Dopamine depletion is believed to result from chronic cocaine abuse. Dopamine deficiency has also been associated with attention deficit disorder (ADD) in adults, and dopamine agonists have been effective in the treatment of ADD. Four case reports of cocaine addiction and ADD are presented. ADD was assumed to play an etiologic role in cocaine abuse, and it was postulated that the patients might in part have been self-medicating a dopamine-deficient state. In addition, cocaine addicts without a premorbid history of ADD may experience a temporary cocaine-induced ADD state. In both cases, the dopamine agonist bromocriptine was highly effective for treating ADD and promoting cocaine abstinence. Restoration of the presumed dopamine deficit may permit an easier course of rehabilitation by improving the patient's ability to participate in therapeutic programs.

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