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J Mol Biol. 1987 Feb 5;193(3):527-53.

2.5 A structure of aspartate carbamoyltransferase complexed with the bisubstrate analog N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate.


In an X-ray diffraction study using the method of multiple isomorphous replacement, the structure of aspartate carbamoyltransferase (EC complexed with the bisubstrate analog N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) has been solved to 2.5 A. Ten rounds of model building and 123 cycles of restrained reciprocal space refinement have resulted in a model containing 94.4% of the theoretical atoms of the protein-inhibitor complex with an R-factor of 0.231. The fit of the model to the density is excellent, except for occasional side-chains and two sections of the regulatory chains that may be disordered. The electron density for the PALA molecule is readily identifiable for both catalytic (c) chains of the asymmetric unit and bonding interactions with several important residues including Ser52, Arg54, Thr55, Ser80, Lys84, Arg105, His134, Arg165, Arg229 and Gln231 are apparent. The carboxylate groups of the PALA molecule are in a nearly cis conformation. Gross quaternary changes between the T and R forms are noted and in agreement with earlier work from this laboratory. Namely, in the new structure the catalytic trimers move apart by 12 A along the 3-fold axis of the enzyme and relocate by 10 degrees relative to each other, adopting a more eclipsed position. The regulatory (r) chains in the new structure reorient about their 2-fold axis by 15 degrees. Large tertiary changes that include domain migration and rearrangement are also present between these two forms. In the R form both domains of the catalytic chain relocate closer to each other in order to bind to the inhibitor. The polar domain seems to bind primarily to the carbamoyl phosphate moiety of PALA, and the equatorial domain binds primarily to the L-aspartate moiety. Other changes in tertiary structure bring the 80s loop (from an adjacent catalytic chain) and the 240s loop into a position to interact with the PALA molecule. Changes have been searched for in all interface regions of the enzyme. While the C1-C4 and C1-R4 regions have been completely altered, most of the other interchain interfaces are similar in the T and R forms. The intrachain interfaces, between domains of the same catalytic chains, have undergone some reorganization as these domains move closer to each other when the inhibitor is bound. This new structure allows a reinterpretation of genetic and chemical modification studies done to date.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

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