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Cancer. 1987 Jul 1;60(1):121-7.

Radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia for deep-seated tumors. I. Studies on thermometry.


The thermometry results of radiofrequency (RF) capacitive hyperthermia for 60 deep-seated tumors in 59 patients are reported. Hyperthermia was administered regionally using two RF capacitive heating equipments which the authors have developed in cooperation with Yamamoto Vinyter Company Ltd., (Osaka, Japan). Intratumor temperatures were measured by thermocouples inserted through angiocatheters which were placed 5 cm to 12 cm deep into the tissues. Tumor center temperatures were measured for 307 treatments in all tumors; thermal distributions within tumors and surrounding normal tissues were obtained for 266 treatments of 53 tumors by microthermocouples. Thermometry results obtained were summarized as follows. A maximum tumor center temperature greater than 43 degrees C and 42 degrees C to 43 degrees C was obtained in 23 (38%) and 14 (23%) of the 60 tumors respectively. The time required to reach 43 degrees C in the tumor center was within 20 minutes after the start of hyperthermia in 87% of tumors heated to more than 43 degrees C. Temperature variations within a tumor exceeded 2 degrees C in 81% of tumors heated to more than 43 degrees C. The lowest tumor temperature greater than 42 degrees C was achieved in six of the 53 tumors (11%). Of 42 tumors in which temperatures of the subcutaneous fat, surrounding normal tissues, and the tumor center were compared, 24 (57%) showed the highest temperature in the tumor center and ten (24%) in the subcutaneous fat. When the heating efficacy was assessed in terms of a maximum tumor center, it great deal depended on the treatment site, tumor size, thickness of subcutaneous fat, and tumor type. Tumors in the head and neck, thorax, lower abdomen, and pelvis could be heated better than tumors in the upper abdomen. Greater heating efficacy was shown in patients with large, hypovascular tumors, and with the subcutaneous fat measuring less than 15 mm thick. The predominant limiting factor for power elevation was pain associated with heating. Systemic signs including increases in pulse rate and body temperature were not serious and seldom became limiting factors for power elevation. Our thermometry results indicate that the advantages of deep RF capacitive heating are its applicability to various anatomic sites and negligible systemic effects. The disadvantages are that its primary usefulness is limited to patients with thin subcutaneous fat and with large or hypovascular tumors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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