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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1987 Mar;13(3):339-49.

Prognostic factors in carcinoma of the prostate--analysis of RTOG study 75-06.


A total of 566 evaluable patients were accessioned to a phase III RTOG study of extended field irradiation in carcinoma of the prostate from 1976 to 1983. Eligible patients were those with locally advanced disease, either clinical Stage C or clinical Stage A2 or B with pelvic lymph node involvement. The treatment consisted of irradiation of the regional lymphatics followed by a boost to the prostate. The data have been analyzed extensively to identify variables of potential prognostic significance. The assessed factors include tumor size, clinical stage, the degree of histological differentiation, nodal status, serum acid phosphatase status, hormonal management status, age, and race. These factors have been assessed as to their interdependence and correlation with the clinical course (study endpoints) using univariate analyses and Cox's Regression model. Significant interdependence of tumor size and Gleason score and tumor size and acid phosphatase was identified. The population receiving hormonal management either prior to or during radiotherapy had a significantly higher proportion of high grade tumors. Correlation of the assessed variables and the study endpoints (local control, incidence of distant metastases, NED survival, survival) singled out the degree of histological differentiation as the most powerful prognostic factor for all the endpoints. Age proved a useful predictor of local control (younger patients failed at a significantly higher rate), as did tumor size. Elevation of serum acid phosphatase correlated well with the incidence of metastatic disease but was not a useful predictor of survival. Tumor size and hormonal management status correlated well with the incidence of metastatic disease but only when analyzed separately from other factors. Their prognostic value was absent when Cox regression analysis was applied. Nodal status did not correlate well with any of the study endpoints, indicating then that in patients with clinical Stage C disease, treated with definitive radiotherapy to the prostate and regional lymphatics, this parameter may have limited prognostic usefulness. Although patients who received concomitant hormonal management had a significantly higher proportion of high grade lesions, their clinical course fared favorably in comparison with the population not receiving concomitant hormonal management. This may indicate a beneficial effect of adjuvant hormonal treatment which needs to be tested in a prospective study.

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