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Dev Biol. 1987 Apr;120(2):392-8.

The ability of the chick wing bud to regulate positional disparity along the anterior-posterior axis.


When wedges of wing bud tissue are added to a host wing bud so there is positional disparity between graft and host, skeletal duplications result (L. E. Iten and D. J. Murphy 1980) Dev Biol. 75, 373-385. The polarity of the duplications is predictable by the polar coordinate model, leading to the interpretation that the positional disparity caused the duplications. To determine whether positional disparity alone causes duplications, without the complication of added tissue, we rotated wedges of ectoderm and mesoderm around the proximodistal axis within the wing bud. Wedges measuring 200-800 micron along the distal edge were rotated 180 degrees at stages 20-22, reversing the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes relative to the bud. This caused positional disparity, similar to that achieved by Iten and Murphy (1980), without the addition of tissue. We found that rotations involving no polarizing zone tissue produced normal wings or wings lacking some distal parts, as did rotations of tissue lying entirely within the polarizing zone. However, when polarizing zone mesoderm was displaced, so that polarizing and nonpolarizing tissues were juxtaposed, a majority of the operations produced polarized skeletal duplications. Our data demonstrate that positional disparity alone does not cause skeletal duplications in the chick wing bud, unless polarizing zone tissue is displaced. Further, these data demonstrate that the chick wing bud can regulate to form a normal wing skeleton in the face of large positional disparity, provided that the polarizing zone is not moved. Finally, our results may be explained by the action of the proposed polarizing morphogen on the displaced cells causing repolarization.

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