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Am J Med. 1987 Apr 27;82(4A):363-8.

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous ciprofloxacin. Studies in vivo and in an in vitro dynamic model.

Abstract

The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a 200-mg intravenous dose of ciprofloxacin were studied in normal volunteers and in an in vitro dynamic model that exposes bacteria to changing concentrations of the drug in a neutropenic setting. Peak ciprofloxacin concentrations in vivo averaged 3.2 micrograms/ml. The terminal serum elimination half-life averaged 4.2 hours. The volume of distribution of ciprofloxacin was large and consistent with extensive extravascular distribution. Slightly less than half of the dose was recovered unchanged in urine by 48 hours after infusion. The median serum bactericidal titer against a strain of Escherichia coli was 1:16 or more for at least six hours after infusion, but was only 1:2 against a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa immediately after the end of the infusion. Pharmacodynamic studies in the in vitro model with a simulated regimen of 200 mg administered intravenously every 12 hours demonstrated rapid and complete killing of this strain of E. coli following the first 200-mg "dose." For the strain of P. aeruginosa, an initial bactericidal effect was observed due to the eradication of susceptible subpopulations of bacteria; however, regrowth of resistant organisms was observed. These data suggest that a regimen of 200 mg administered intravenously every 12 hours results in rapid killing of susceptible bacteria. Higher doses or combination therapy may be required to prevent the emergence of resistant P. aeruginosa in this model and in the setting of neutropenia.

PMID:
3555061
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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