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Am J Med. 1987 Apr 27;82(4A):352-6.

Dual individualization of intravenous ciprofloxacin in patients with nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections.


Dual individualization is the integration of patient-specific pharmacokinetic parameters with the pharmacodynamics (concentration versus response) of the infecting pathogen. This technique allows description of the time of in vivo bacterial eradication, and allows estimation of optimal dosages using small numbers of seriously ill patients. In an ongoing study, 11 patients with nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections were given 200 mg of intravenous ciprofloxacin every 12 hours. Ten blood samples were taken after the first dose, with additional peaks and troughs measured on Day 4 and at the end of treatment. Bacterial isolates had minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined by standard microdilution techniques. In the 11 patients, there were 14 bacterial isolates, of which seven were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the remainder were other pathogens. Ciprofloxacin MICs ranged from 0.008 to 1.0 microgram/ml. The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in these patients varied with renal function, and average peak serum concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 4.9 micrograms/ml. Eradication of bacteria from tracheal aspirates occurred between Days 1 and 7, except in four patients in whom the organism persisted. Correlations were observed between the day of eradication and the length of time ciprofloxacin concentrations remained above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Essentially all bacteria with MICs of less than 0.25 were eradicated. Of the non-eradicated bacteria, most had either MICs of more than 0.25, or less than 100 percent time above the MIC. The clinical response was satisfactory. It is concluded that 200 mg of intravenous ciprofloxacin every 12 hours is highly effective for bacteria with MICs less than 0.25 microgram/ml, but higher dosages may be required to eradicate organisms with higher MICs.

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