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J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1987 Jan 1;190(1):81-90.

Clinicopathologic, renal immunofluorescent, and light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis in the dog: 41 cases (1975-1985).


In a 10-year retrospective study, we evaluated the clinicopathologic features and renal immunofluorescence patterns of glomerulonephritis in 41 dogs. On the basis of results of histologic examinations, the dogs were segregated into 3 groups, including membranous (n = 12), mesangioproliferative (n = 15), or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (n = 14). No significant differences existed among groups in regard to age or duration of illness. Most dogs had been ill for one month or longer. The proportion of dogs with azotemia, anemia, and hyperphosphatemia were not different among the disease groups. Proportion of dogs with hypoalbuminemia and the severity of hypoalbuminemia were not different among groups. Highest urine protein losses and 24-hour urine protein/creatinine ratios developed in dogs with membranous glomerulonephritis. Although hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia were common (49%), the formation of edema or ascites was not (15%) and, therefore, few dogs had all of the classic features of the nephrotic syndrome. Few dogs suffered thromboembolic complications. Antinuclear antibody titers developed in 11 dogs, the highest titers developing in dogs with polyarthritis and systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis detected alpha 2 and beta 1 globulin spikes in most dogs (87%). Results of renal immunofluorescence testing were positive in 36 dogs, using polyvalent antisera for immunoglobulins (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, and/or antisera for complement factor C3. When monovalent antisera for IgG, IgA, and IgM, and fibrinogen were used, immunofluorescence was not observed as often. The major fluorescent pattern was discrete multifocal segmental granular glomerular fluorescence, consistent with immune-complex deposition. Two dogs had linear glomerular staining patterns; however, antibodies directed against normal glomerular basement membrane were not found via elution studies. A high prevalence of glucocorticoid excess (treatment with glucocorticoids and spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism) (34%), chronic inflammatory skin disease (27%), neoplasia (17%), polyarthritis (12%), and systemic lupus erythematosis (7%) were observed as clinical problems concurrent with glomerulonephritis. In 5 dogs, treatment of glomerulonephritis with prednisolone (0.5 to 1.1 mg/kg) did not result in beneficial effects and in fact appeared to be detrimental, leading to azotemia and worsening proteinuria and physical condition in some of the dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

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