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Rev Infect Dis. 1986 Nov-Dec;8(6):918-26.

Perinatal echovirus infection: insights from a literature review of 61 cases of serious infection and 16 outbreaks in nurseries.


A review of literature published before June 1985 revealed 61 reported cases of neonatal echovirus infection at a nonmucosal site, including 43 cases (70%) due to echovirus 11. Onset of disease occurred between the third and fifth days of life in 63% of cases, indicating that most infections are acquired in the immediate perinatal period rather than in utero. Mortality was higher in infants with severe hepatitis (83%) than in infants with infection of the central nervous system (19%). Acute illness occurred within one week before delivery in 68% of the mothers of nonnosocomially infected infants. There was a trend (P = .11) towards a higher mortality rate for infants born by cesarian section than for those delivered vaginally. In the 11 nosocomially acquired cases, the onset of infection was later and the mortality rate lower. In 16 outbreaks in nurseries, 206 infants developed illness attributed to echovirus infection. Attack rates of clinical disease were 22%-52% and illness was generally mild. In four outbreaks, six index cases were identified as infants who had acquired infection from their mothers; five of these infants had severe disease and three died. The 24 infants subsequently infected by nosocomial spread in these outbreaks had milder disease; three (12%) died. Thus, whereas acute illness in the mother before birth often precedes neonatal echovirus infection and infections transmitted vertically from mother to infant may be severe, postnatal transmission of the same serotype results in milder disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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