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Pathol Biol (Paris). 1986 Sep;34(7):861-85.


[Article in French]


Microaspiration techniques and clearance studies have shown that reabsorption of filtered sodium approximates 65% in the proximal tubule, 25 to 30% in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and 5 to 10% in the dilution segment. Reabsorption in the Henle loop is of special significance as it governs the process of dilution-concentration of urine. Moreover, inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle necessarily produces a substantial loss of sodium since only a fairly small fraction of urinary sodium is reabsorbed beyond the Henle loop (dilution segment, distal tubule). Excretion of water and electrolytes is regulated by humoral factors, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, some prostaglandins and certain kinins. Factors that promote excretion of sodium, produced in particular by the myocardium, have recently been demonstrated. The correlation between blood pressure and salt has been substantiated by many findings. Diuretics are commonly used to treat high blood pressure as well as edema. Recent evidence indicates that sodium transport is altered in idiopathic hypertension, at least in red blood cells. Clinical trials of diuretics are designed to localize the drug's action and quantify its saluretic activity (evaluation of potency and effectiveness--single doses, sustained treatment). Furthermore, the minimal efficient antihypertensive dosage should be determined. Diuretics can be divided into two groups according to whether they produce an increase or decrease in serum potassium. Diuretics that are capable of producing hypokalemia belong to two main families. One consists of the Henle loop diuretics that interfere with the mechanisms of dilution-concentration of urine. Action of these drugs is potent and short-lived. For instance, following a single dose of furosemide, excretion of sodium can reach 25-30% of filtered sodium; renal blood flow increases; CH2O and TCH2O decrease. With furosemide, induction of diuresis is rapid (within a few minutes after IV injection and 20 mn after oral ingestion); elimination half-life is 50 mn; absolute bioavailability is 50-70%; 95% of the drug is bound to plasma proteins; elimination is mainly through the kidneys. Other Henle loop diuretics include ethacrynic acid, whose elimination half-life is less than one hour; bumetanide, which is 40 times more potent than furosemide; muzolimine, whose action is more lasting despite the fact that only 65% of the drug is bound to plasma proteins; and ozolinone, which has a saliuretic action comparable to that of furosemide and in addition exerts a direct vasodilating effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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