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Am J Med Genet. 1978;1(4):461-74.

The syndromology of anorectal malformation (atresia, stenosis, ectopia).


The syndromes, associations, and developmental field defects that include anorectal dysgenesis (atresia, stenosis, ectopia) as a principal or facultative sign are discussed. Most of these disorders are identifiable by their genetic or teratogenic etiology, their distinctive phenotype, or both. Their precise diagnosis is crucial for estimation of recurrence risk and other aspects of reproductive counseling, and it is essential for classificatory progress. The "VACTERL association" should not be used to label a patient with anorectal malformation and other anomalies except by exclusion; this rule is particularly relevant when the patient lacks tracheoesophageal malformation. The degree (or variety) of anorectal malformation that occurs in a given pattern of multiple congenital anomalies may be inconstant. Furthermore, anorectal malformation may be a solitary expression of a familial syndrome.

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