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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Jun;62(6):1302-4.

Evidence for an association of high blood pressure and hyperinsulinemia in obese man.


An association between hyperinsulinemia and hypertension has been suggested by epidemiological surveys. To assess whether this association is independent of the presence of other hyperinsulinemic states, such as obesity and glucose intolerance, we measured the insulin response to oral glucose in a group of middle-aged moderately obese [144 +/- 4% overweight (mean +/- SEM)] patients (n = 18) with essential hypertension (174 +/- 5/104 +/- 2 mm Hg) and normal glucose tolerance. Normotensive subjects (n = 17) with normal glucose tolerance, matched for age and degree of overweight, served as the control group. The mean insulin response to glucose was twice as high in the hypertensive patients (25.8 +/- 0.2 mU/ml X 2 h) as in the normotensive subjects (11.3 +/- 0.2; P less than 0.001), yet the glucose incremental area was 3-fold higher in the former (10.9 +/- 1.0 g/dl X 2 h) than in the latter (3.5 +/- 0.7; P less than 0.001), thus indicating more severe insulin resistance. In the hypertensive group, systolic blood pressure levels were directly correlated with the 2-h plasma insulin values (r = 0.75; P less than 0.001). Furthermore, the 2-h plasma insulin value and the degree of overweight accounted for 65% of the variation in the systolic blood pressure in a multiple regression model (r = 0.81; P less than 0.001). We conclude that in obesity, the occurrence of hypertension marks the presence of additional hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, independent of any impairment of glucose tolerance.

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