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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1986 Oct;92(4):649-60.

Early and late results of coronary endarterectomy. Analysis of 3,369 patients.

Abstract

The effectiveness of coronary revascularization has been questioned in patients with diffuse coronary disease. Over a 14 year period (1970 to 1984), 30,464 patients underwent surgical revascularization at our institution. Coronary artery bypass alone was done in 27,095 patients and was combined with coronary endarterectomy in 3,369 patients (12.4%). Analysis of preoperative variables revealed an increased incidence of male sex, diabetes mellitus, low ejection fraction (less than 30) and multiple vessel disease in patients requiring endarterectomy. The early results after revascularization indicated a small increase in surgical risk after endarterectomy. The 30 day mortality for bypass alone was 2.6% versus 4.4% for coronary endarterectomy (p less than 0.01). Multivariate analysis identified independent predictors of operative risk: ejection fraction less than 30%, reoperation, age, absence of hyperlipidemia, endarterectomy, and female sex. Early mortality was significantly increased by endarterectomy in the left anterior descending coronary artery (8.5%) compared to endarterectomy in arteries other than the left anterior descending (4.2%) (p less than 0.01). In a sample of 4,473 patients, myocardial complications were also found to be increased after coronary endarterectomy. The incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing bypass alone was 2.6% versus 5.4% for patients undergoing bypass plus endarterectomy (p less than 0.01). Both fatal and nonfatal cardiac arrests increased (bypass alone, 1.7%; endarterectomy, 3.5%; p less than 0.01). This suggests the failure mode of unsuccessful endarterectomy. Early mortality after coronary endarterectomy decreased substantially from 1970-1976 (6.4%) to 1977-1984 (3.5%; p less than 0.01). Actuarial analysis at 5 years and longer has shown very little difference in the long-term survival rate (coronary bypass, 90%; coronary endarterectomy, 86%), freedom from angina (coronary artery bypass, 58%; coronary endarterectomy, 52%), and freedom from reoperation (coronary artery bypass, 97%; coronary endarterectomy, 98%). Despite the small increase in surgical risk, the early and late results support the selective application of coronary endarterectomy in patients with diffuse distal disease and demonstrate the beneficial long-term effects.

PMID:
3489867
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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