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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jul;84(14):4826-30.

The gene-specific initiation factor USF (upstream stimulatory factor) bound at the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter: mass and three-dimensional structure.


The gene-specific transcription initiation factor USF (upstream stimulatory factor) binds at a palindromic sequence that extends from -52 to -63 relative to the start site of the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter; USF enhances in vitro transcription 10- to 20-fold. By analysis of digital micrographs from the Brookhaven scanning transmission electron microscope, we have identified a sample of 29 proteins (mass, 55 +/- 5 kDa) specifically bound at the palindrome. The individual protein digital images show extensive homology, which permits modeling a three-dimensional structure at a relatively low resolution, which is nonetheless significant for the study of protein-protein interactions in initiation. Non-sequence-specific competitor DNA at high mass excess can be used in reactions for microscopy, enabling characterization of specific binding for proteins present at 1% of total protein or less.

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