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J Natl Cancer Inst. 1987 Apr;78(4):759-69.

Dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine: inhibition of metastasis of three rodent tumors.


The effects of a combined dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine on metastasis were investigated with the use of 3 rodent tumor cell lines: B16-bladder 6 (BL6) melanoma inoculated into (C57BL/6 X DBA/2)F1 mice, Lewis lung (3LL) carcinoma inoculated into C57BL/6 mice, and RT7-4bs hepatocarcinoma inoculated into BD-IV rats. When examined for effects on spontaneous metastasis, dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine had no effect on metastasis to draining lymph nodes in either BL6 or 3LL tumors. However, the restriction did reduce metastasis of RT7-4bs cells to draining lymph nodes by 60%. In all tumor systems, the dietary restriction effectively inhibited the subsequent growth of lymph node tumors. The most marked effect of the dietary restriction was on spontaneous hematogenous metastasis, which was almost totally blocked for BL6 cells and was reduced by 85% for RT7-4bs cells. Tumor-associated splenomegaly also was completely inhibited in 3LL tumor-bearing mice. The selective dietary amino acid restriction failed to reduce initial lung colonization in the experimental metastasis assay but clearly inhibited subsequent tumor outgrowth in the lungs. These findings demonstrate that modification of host nutritional status by restriction of the dietary intake of tyrosine and phenylalanine exerts a dramatic antimetastatic effect directed particularly on spontaneous hematogenous metastasis. Although the preliminary data suggest a primary modulating effect on tumor cell populations growing in diet-restricted animals to reduce inherent metastatic ability, the actual mechanisms remain to be defined.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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