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Leuk Res. 1987;11(2):119-33.

Toward a clinically relevant cytogenetic classification of acute myelogenous leukemia.


Cytogenetic studies with Giemsa banding were performed on the bone marrow cells of 384 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia treated between 1975 and 1983. An abnormal karyotype was detected in 54% of patients, being present in 100% of metaphases (AA) in 31% and only a proportion of cells (AN) in 22%. Specific translocations or other abnormalities were noted in 22% of patients, the most common of which were t(8;21) (q22;q22) in 7%, t(15;17) (q22;q21) and inv (16) (p13q22) in 5.5%, t(9;22) (q34;q11) in 3% and abnormalities of 11q23 in 1.3%. Loss of the Y chromosome was noted in 21 patients, associated with t(8;21) in 11 patients and the sole abnormality in eight patients (45, X, -Y). Most (66%) of the other abnormalities involved addition of chromosome 8 or loss or deletion of 5 or 7 (+8, -5 or -7, 5q- or 7q- group). The remaining patients had miscellaneous abnormalities (MA). A marked assymetry was noted in the distribution of important clinical prognostic variables such as age, sex, history of an antecedent hematologic disorder and presence of Auer rods within the various cytogenetic categories. The specific translocation/abnormalities were more common in younger patients (p less than 0.01). Analysis of response, remission duration and survival demonstrated that inv 16 and t(8;21) were favorable prognostic categories; diploid, t(15;17) and 45,X,-Y had intermediate prognosis, and all other categories were unfavorable prognostic groups. The response rate and survival for diploid patients (NN) was superior to patients with abnormalities. No difference in response rate, CR duration or survival was noted between the AA and AN groups. A prognostic classification according to cytogenetic category based on clinical associations is proposed which will be tested prospectively in subsequent studies.

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