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J Pharm Pharmacol. 1979 Mar;31(3):140-7.

Percutaneous absorption: in vivo experiments.


The percutaneous absorption of esters of nicotinic acid has been studied in vivo in man. The time for erythema to be produced has been measured both when the ester is applied continuously and in 'pulse' experiments when the ester is removed before the erythema develops. The results show that the erythema is produced long before steady state diffusion across the epidermis is established and the penetration of methyl nicotinate is characterized by D/l2 = 2.3 X 10(-4)s-1 where D is the diffusion coefficient and l the thickness of the barrier. Results using glycerol water mixtures in the external phase show that the route of penetration for methyl nicotinate is through the interstitial channels and not through the keratinized cells. Data for absorption from various creams and ointments (Barrett et al 1964) show that the route is independent of the nature of the external phase. Steady state data for the absorption of salicylic acid and carbinoxamine through the abdominal skin of guinea-pigs (Arita et al 1970) show that the route of penetration does not change as the experiment proceeds. Data for the absorption of other substances (Michaels et al 1975) also fit the interstitial route.

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