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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Feb;84(3):680-4.

Rat gene encoding the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein GRP78: its regulatory sequences and the effect of protein glycosylation on its expression.


The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein GRP78 is a stress-inducible protein ubiquitously expressed in animal cells. In this paper we show that the first exon of this endoplasmic reticulum-localized protein consists of an 18 amino acid leader sequence rich in hydrophobic residues, followed by a highly acidic mature N-terminus and an 11 amino acid domain that is shared by members of the 70-kDa heat shock protein family. The end of this shared domain also marks the beginning of the first intron of this gene. A DNA region upstream of the promoter element important for induction by calcium ionophore and by a temperature-sensitive mutation was identified by deletion analysis. Our results indicate that a region spanning from 85 to 480 nucleotides upstream of the major transcription initiation site is important for both induction conditions. With evidence suggesting that perturbations in protein glycosylation may be one of the common stimuli involved in transcription activation of the GRPs, we measured the rate of glycosylation during A23187, glucose starvation, and temperature-shift induced conditions. The inverse correlation observed between the rate of glycosylation and the steady-state level of the GRP78 transcripts lends support to this hypothesis.

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