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Hum Genet. 1988 Aug;79(4):321-8.

XY sex reversal syndrome in the mare: clinical and behavioral studies, H-Y phenotype.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tennessee, Memphis 38163.


An inherited genetic disorder causes XY embryos of the horse to develop as mares. On the basis of our study of 38 such mares, we have identified four grades or classes of XY sex reversal according to this scheme: class I, nearly normal female, of which some are fertile; class II, female with gonadal dysgenesis, normal mullerian development; class III, intersex mare with gonadal dysgenesis, abnormal mullerian development, enlarged clitoris; class IV, virilized intersex characterized by high levels of testosterone. In general, class I and class II mares were typed H-Y antigen-negative whereas class III and class IV mares were typed H-Y antigen-positive.

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