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J Psychiatr Res. 1988;22(2):141-55.

Gender and the expression of schizophrenia.

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  • 1Section of Psychiatric Epidemiology and Genetics, Massachusetts Mental Health Center.


The expression of schizophrenia was examined in 169 DSM-III diagnosed schizophrenics. Restricted maximum likelihood factor analysis was used to test the invariance of the hypothesized symptom model across gender. Findings indicated that schizophrenic women not only expressed more impulsivity and affective symptomatology than did men, but their psychotic symptoms covaried consistently with the expression of impulsivity, anger and other affective symptomatology. Men's expression of schizophrenia covaried positively with withdrawal/isolation and an inability to function, suggesting a possible negative symptom pattern. Gender differences were not attributable to misclassification, differences in diagnostic subtypes, nor to selection. Results are discussed in light of their implications for understanding the heterogeneity of schizophrenia.

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