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Anat Embryol (Berl). 1988;177(6):495-511.

The first appearance of the future cerebral hemispheres in the human embryo at stage 14.

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1
Carnegie Laboratories of Embryology, California Primate Research Center, Davis 95616.

Abstract

Thirty-five embryos of stage 14 (32 days) were studied in detail and graphic reconstructions of four of them were prepared. Characteristic features of this stage include the beginning formation of the future cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellar plates. The ventral boundary between telencephalon medium and diencephalon is the preoptic recess. Although a velum transversum is not yet distinguishable as a dorsal boundary, its site is indicated by a change in the thickness of the roof of the forebrain. As the cerebral vesicles (future hemispheres) begin to evaginate, a di-telencephalic sulcus and a corresponding lateral ventricle and ventricular ridge (torus hemisphericus) develop. The telencephalic wall is mainly ventricular layer but three areas show advanced differentiation: olfactory area, future amygdaloid body (which lies at first mainly in the diencephalon), and primordium of the hippocampus. The telencephalon is growing in length, and the forebrain now occupies almost one quarter of the total length of the brain. The two neuromeres of the diencephalon are no longer as clearly delineated. The floor of D1 presents a thickened chiasmatic plate; that of D2 includes the infundibulum, which is closely related to the adenohypophysial pouch. The ventricular surface of D1 presents elevations for the dorsal and ventral thalami, separated by the sulcus medius. Other features of the diencephalon include the ventricular eminence (medial ventricular ridge) of the basal nuclei and the hypothalamic cell cord, from which the preopticohypothalamotegmental tract arises. The roof of D2 contains the evaginating part of the synencephalon. The mesencephalic angle continues to diminish. Two neuromeres, M1 and M2, are still distinguishable. The oculomotor nucleus emits nerve fibres, as does also the trochlear nucleus, which lies in the isthmic segment. Some extracerebral oculomotor fibres are present, but decussating and extracerebral trochlear fibres have not yet appeared. In the region of the tectum, two nuclei are discernible, and will form the medial tectobulbar tract and the mesencephalic root of the trigeminal nerve, respectively. The medial longitudinal fasciculus is present. A "median ventricular formation" is sometimes found in the mesencephalic roof. The cerebellum is the widest part of the brain. Two neuromeres (isthmic segment and Rh1) are involved in its formation. Most of the cerebellar plate has differentiated an intermediate layer, and the future rhombic lip is discernible. Indications of an efferent fibre system are present. In addition to the cerebellum, the rhombencephalon includes Rh1 to Rh7, and RhD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

PMID:
3377191
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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