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JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1988 Mar-Apr;12(2):170-3.

Aluminum contamination of infant formulas.

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Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.


This study aims to determine the extent of aluminum (Al) contamination in whole milk, milk formulas, and other nutrient products commonly used for infants. Similar products from different manufacturers and different lots were measured for Al using electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Aluminum measurements were made directly from the samples or after reconstitution or dilution with Al-free water. Aluminum content was lowest (less than 50 micrograms/liter) in human milk, whole cow milk, and products that appear to require minimal manufacture processing and have few additives such as skim milk, cow milk with 2% fat, bottled glucose water, and sterile water. Highest Al levels (up to 2346 micrograms/liter) were found in highly processed and modified formulas including soy formula, preterm infant formula, and formulas for specific metabolic disorders. Aluminum content of humanized cow milk formula and bottled glucose-electrolyte solution were between the two ranges and usually less than 400 micrograms/liter. There were no significant differences in Al content of similar products from different manufacturers. Liquid formula stored in glass bottles has highest Al content compared to that stored in steel cans or powder preparation of the same product (p less than 0.05). Thus there are marked differences in Al loading depending on the type of formula, whether it is a powder or liquid preparation and the type of storage container. We speculate that raw materials such as soybean, additives such as calcium and phosphorus, manufacturing processes and storage containers are potential sources of contamination of infant formulas.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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