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J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1988 Jan;29(1):43-52.

Blood lead, intelligence, reading attainment, and behaviour in eleven year old children in Dunedin, New Zealand.

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Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Otago Medical School, Dunedin, New Zealand.


A study of blood lead levels and intelligence, reading, and behaviour problems was carried out using a sample of 579 Dunedin 11-yr-old children. The results suggested that when account was taken of social, environmental, and background factors, raised blood lead is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in children's general behaviour problems as reported by both parents and teachers. These results applied especially to the more specific problems of inattention and hyperactivity.

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