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J Biomech. 1988;21(2):131-9.

The effect of porosity and mineral content on the Young's modulus of elasticity of compact bone.

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Department of Biology, University of York, U.K.


The Young's modulus of elasticity, the calcium content and the volume fraction (1-porosity) of 23 tension specimens and 80 bending specimens, taken from compact bone of 18 species of mammal, bird and reptile, were determined. There was a strong positive relationship between Young's modulus and both calcium content and volume fraction. A power law model fits the data better than a linear model. Young's modulus has a roughly cubic relationship with both calcium content and volume fraction. Over 80% of the total variation in Young's modulus in this data set is explained by these two variables.

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