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Enzyme. 1987;38(1-4):91-107.

Molecular basis of isovaleric acidemia and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

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Department of Human Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.


Our early study of isovaleric acidemia (IVA) indicated that isovaleryl-CoA is dehydrogenated by an enzyme that is specific for isovaleryl-CoA. We subsequently identified and purified isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) and 2-methyl-branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which were previously unknown. We also purified and characterized three previously known acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. Five acyl-CoA dehydrogenases share similar molecular features and reaction mechanisms, indicating a close evolutionary relationship. Using the tritium release assay and [35S]methionine labeling/immunoprecipitation, we showed that IVA is due to a mutation of IVD. We also demonstrated that there are at least 5 distinct forms of mutant IVD, indicating an extensive molecular heterogeneity. Furthermore, we cloned cDNAs encoding IVD and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. The comparison of their complete primary sequences revealed a high degree of homology, indicating that these enzymes belong to a gene family, the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family.

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