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J Perinat Med. 1987;15(4):333-9.

Incidence and prediction of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants.

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Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Leiden, The Netherlands.


During a prospective national survey of mortality and morbidity in infants born before 32 weeks gestation in the Netherlands in 1983, the incidence of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) was studied with ultrasound, in 484 of those infants. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to examine the predictive value of several maternal, prenatal and postnatal factors for the development of neonatal PIVH. PIVH was detected in 140 infants (28.9%); of these, 36 were grade I, 39 grade II, 22 grade III and 43 grade IV. The mortality rate increased from 3 to 84% with increasing severity of PIVH. Gestational age appeared to be the strongest predictive factor for both incidence and severity of PIVH, followed by idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), prolonged rupture of membranes and birth weight. Of the maternal and prenatal factors studied, only prolonged rupture of membranes (greater than 24 hours) and preeclampsia appeared to influence the risk of developing PIVH. Both were associated with a 50% reduction in the incidence of PIVH. None of the intrapartum factors studied showed a significant association with subsequent development of PIVH. Development of IRDS appeared to result in a twofold increase in the incidence of PIVH.

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