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Semin Thromb Hemost. 1987 Oct;13(4):504-13.

Endothelial cell growth factors and the vessel wall.

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  • 1Department of Cell Biology, New York University Medical Center, NY 10016.

Abstract

The role of endothelial cell growth factors in the maintenance of the blood vessel wall is, as we have described here, much more complex than merely stimulating the mitogenesis of endothelial cells. The FGFs are capable of eliciting an array of responses in endothelial cells, some, or all, of which are important for neovascularization and the control of clot dissolution. These endothelial cell responses include protease elaboration, chemotaxis, and mitogenesis. That these growth factors seem neither to be constitutively released into the medium of cultured cells that synthesize bFGF, nor released into the bloodstream in vivo suggests that the temporal and local control of neovascularization may involve the regulation of growth factor release from cells such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages. Although there is no known example of this for bFGF, it is well known that both thrombin and Factor Xa stimulate the release of a mitogenic protein from endothelial cells and that low oxygen tension stimulates the release of macrophage-derived angiogenesis factor. In addition, both TGF beta and heparin alone appear to play a role in wound healing and vessel wall maintenance. The work of Roberts et al suggests that TGF beta is not only angiogenic, but also stimulates the growth of fibrotic tissue as well. Studies on mast cells demonstrated that released heparin is chemotactic for endothelial cells and can potentiate tumor angiogenesis. An attractive hypothesis is that these molecules not only act as FGF potentiators or inhibitors but that they also may exert their angiogenic effects by inducing FGF release from cells. Perhaps angiogenin, an angiogenic molecule with no mitogenic activity, works in this way. However, no evidence as yet exists concerning this point. A second level of control of neovascularization may involve the interaction of FGF with other molecules released into the same microenvironment. For example, thrombin and TGF beta released from platelets, as well as heparin released from mast cells, have all been demonstrated to affect bFGF activity in vitro and may act as modifiers of FGF activity in vivo. Since bFGF can modulate fibrinolytic activity, one could imagine that its release into a wound region of the vasculature could have detrimental effects on clot formation and subsequent wound healing. Thus, the transient inhibition of bFGF activity by TGF beta would allow clot formation before the induction of neovascularization by bFGF, TGF beta thereby playing a role in the regulation of the sequence in which events occur.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

PMID:
3321439
DOI:
10.1055/s-2007-1003526
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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