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J Am Optom Assoc. 1987 Jul;58(7):578-87.

Binocular anomalies and reading problems.

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School of Education, Univ. of California, Berkeley 94720.


This paper reviews and evaluates the research literature on the relationship of binocular anomalies to reading problems. The weight of the evidence supports a positive relationship between certain binocular anomalies and reading problems. The evidence is positive for exophoria at near, fusional vergence reserves, aniseikonia, anisometropia, convergence insufficiency, and fixation disparity. There is some weak positive evidence for esophoria at near and mixed evidence for stereopsis. The evidence on lateral phorias at distance is negative.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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