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Muscle Nerve. 1987 Sep;10(7):577-98.

Hormonal control of muscle growth.

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Biology Department, Syracuse University, NY 13244.


In muscle of whole animals, pituitary growth hormone, the thyroid hormones, and insulin are major growth-promoting hormones, and the glucocorticoids have significant catabolic actions. At the cellular level the primary anabolic hormones for cultured myoblasts are the somatomedins (insulin-like growth factors) and fibroblast growth factor. In these cells physiological concentrations of growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and insulin have no growth-promoting effect; some of the reported actions of insulin probably result from cross-reaction with the somatomedin receptor. Results with purified proteins do not support the view that mitogens block myoblast differentiation; transforming growth factor-beta and interferon are nonmitogenic proteins that inhibit differentiation, insulin-like growth factors are mitogens that stimulate differentiation, and fibroblast growth factor is the only purified mitogen that inhibits differentiation. At least six serum-free media have now been devised for the growth of various kinds of muscle cells under closely defined conditions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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