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Drugs. 1988 Apr;35(4):373-447.

Ciprofloxacin. A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use.

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1
ADIS Drug Information Services, Auckland.

Abstract

Ciprofloxacin is one of a new generation of fluorinated quinolones structurally related to nalidixic acid. The primary mechanism of action of ciprofloxacin is inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase. It is a broad spectrum antibacterial drug to which most Gram-negative bacteria are highly susceptible in vitro and many Gram-positive bacteria are susceptible or moderately susceptible. Unlike most broad spectrum antibacterial drugs, ciprofloxacin is effective after oral or intravenous administration. Ciprofloxacin has been most extensively studied following oral administration. It attains concentrations in most tissues and body fluids which are at least equivalent to the minimum inhibitory concentration designated as the breakpoint for bacterial susceptibility in vitro. The results of clinical trials with orally and intravenously administered ciprofloxacin have confirmed the potential for its use in a wide range of infections, which was suggested by its in vitro antibacterial and pharmacokinetic profiles. It has proven an effective treatment for many types of systemic infections as well as for both acute and chronic infections of the urinary tract. Ciprofloxacin generally appeared to be at least as effective as alternative orally administered antibacterial drugs in the indications in which they were compared, and in some indications, to parenterally administered antibacterial therapy. However, further studies are needed to fully clarify the comparative efficacy of ciprofloxacin and standard antibacterial therapies. Bacterial resistance to ciprofloxacin develops infrequently, both in vitro and clinically, except in the setting of pseudomonal respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis patients. The drug is also well tolerated. Thus, as an orally active, broad spectrum and potent antibacterial drug, ciprofloxacin offers a valuable alternative to broad spectrum parenterally administered antibacterial drugs for use in a wide range of clinical infections, including difficult infections due to multiresistant pathogens.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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