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Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1988;2(5):340-6.

Incidence and risk factors of prosthetic valve endocarditis.

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Hungarian Institute of Cardiology, Budapest.


To study the incidence and risk factors of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) we followed 99.5% of 912 patients who had valve replacements from 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1985 for 1-6 (mean 3) years. PVE occurred in 27 patients (2.96% or 0.98% per patient-year). The incidence of PVE in the aortic position (3.9%) was significantly higher than in the mitral position (1.5%): chi-square = 6.1, P less than 0.025. PVE developed in 19 of 329 patients with bioprostheses (5.8%), and in 8 of 583 patients with mechanical valves (1.4%): chi-square = 14.48, P less than 0.005). Actuarially at 5-year follow-up, 90.7% +/- 2.16% of the bioprosthetic group and 98.4% +/- 0.56% of the mechanical valve group was free of PVE (P less than 0.001). Antecedent endocarditis increased both the incidence and relative risk of PVE 7-fold compared to patients without antecedent endocarditis (chi-square = 32.0, P less than 0.0001). Bioprosthetic valve replacement in infective endocarditis increased the risk of PVE 12-fold compared to valve replacement by mechanical prostheses.


in the order of importance, antecedent endocarditis, bioprostheses and aortic position are risk factors in the development of PVE. Bioprostheses implanted in patients with antecedent endocarditis further enhance the risk of PVE.

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