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J Biol Chem. 1988 May 25;263(15):7330-5.

A frameshift mutation results in a truncated alpha 1-antitrypsin that is retained within the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

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1
Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030.

Abstract

The major physiological role of the serine protease inhibitor alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) is to protect elastic fibers in the lung from excessive hydrolysis by neutrophil elastase. Genetic deficiency of alpha 1-AT predisposes individuals toward the development of emphysema. We have cloned and characterized a mutant alpha 1-AT gene from an individual exhibiting a total absence of immunoreactive alpha 1-AT in serum. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this "null" allele has demonstrated a TC dinucleotide deletion within the codon for Leu318 in exon IV. This frame-shift mutation results in the generation of a premature termination codon at residue 334, which is upstream of the active inhibitory site. To determine the biochemical basis of the null phenotype, the mutant and normal genes were transferred into mouse hepatoma cells for expression analysis. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that the mutant gene is expressed into a truncated protein of 45 kDa, which is retained within the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The complete lack of secretion of the truncated protein is consistent with the absence of immunoreactive alpha 1-AT in the patient's serum. In addition, a G to A transition was identified in exon II of the mutant gene, changing the codon for Arg101 to His101. Finally, an A to C transversion was identified in exon V changing the codon for Glu376 to Asp376. Since the latter conservative amino acid substitution has previously been identified in the common PiM2 variant, the frame-shift mutation might have occurred on a PiM2 background chromosome. Using the birthplace of this index case, this mutant alpha 1-AT allele has been designated "nullHong Kong."

PMID:
3259232
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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