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Clin Nutr. 2020 Mar 10. pii: S0261-5614(20)30107-2. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2020.02.039. [Epub ahead of print]

Micronutrients in paediatric Intestinal Failure Patients receiving home parenteral nutrition.

Author information

Oslo University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Medicine, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:
Oslo University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Medicine, Oslo, Norway.
University of Oslo, Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo, Norway.
Oslo University Hospital, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo, Norway.
University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Science, Bergen, Norway; Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Health Registries, Bergen, Norway.



Children with intestinal failure (IF) receive parental nutrition to ensure adequate growth and development. The aim of this study was to assess micronutrient status in paediatric IF patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in comparison to a group of healthy children.


An observational cross-sectional study was performed at Oslo University Hospital and at the Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo from January to September 2017. All children with IF, aged two to 18 years, were invited to participate. A reference group of healthy children was recruited through social media advertisement. Dietary intake was assessed by a four-day food record, and enteral and parenteral provision was recorded. Blood samples were analysed for vitamins, minerals and haematology to assess iron status. Two spot urine samples from each subject were analysed for iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine.


Nineteen children with IF and 50 healthy children were included. The mean age of the participants was 10.0 years. IF-patients received a median of 76% of their estimated energy requirements from parenteral nutrition (PN). Recommended intake (RI) for iodine from the diet was reached by 16% of IF patients and 28% of healthy children. In the IF group there was a significant positive correlation between UIC and the percentage of iodine intake from oral diet and enteral nutrition support (r = 0.57, p = 0.03). Although the IF patients had a median parenteral iodine supply of more than twice the ESPGHAN recommendation, the median UIC was 89 μg/L indicating insufficient iodine status. This may suggest that the ESPGHAN recommendation for iodine in paediatric parenteral nutrition is too low. The healthy children had sufficient iodine status according to the median UIC (133 μg/L). IF patients had significantly lower total provision of iron compared to the healthy children, 4,9 vs 8,4 mg/day (p = 0.01) with 21% of IF patients and 28% of healthy children reaching RI for iron. The prevalence of anaemia was higher in IF patients than in the healthy children (40 vs.10%, p = 0.016).


The study indicates an insufficient iodine and iron status among paediatric IF patients. Iodine status was associated with enteral provision and patients had insufficient status even if they received the ESPGHAN recommendation of iodine.


Clinical Trials AEV2017/1. 2016/391/REK sør-øst B.


Anaemia; Diet; Home parenteral nutrition; Intestinal failure; Iodine status; Iron status; Micronutrient status; Paediatric; Parenteral nutrition


Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest The authors report no conflicts of interests to declare.

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