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PLoS One. 2020 Mar 23;15(3):e0230500. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0230500. eCollection 2020.

Deep learning based searching approach for RDF graphs.

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College of Computer Science & Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China.


The Internet is a remarkably complex technical system. Its rapid growth has also brought technical issues such as problems to information retrieval. Search engines retrieve requested information based on the provided keywords. Consequently, it is difficult to accurately find the required information without understanding the syntax and semantics of the content. Multiple approaches are proposed to resolve this problem by employing the semantic web and linked data techniques. Such approaches serialize the content using the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and execute the queries using SPARQL to resolve the problem. However, an exact match between RDF content and query structure is required. Although, it improves the keyword-based search; however, it does not provide probabilistic reasoning to find the semantic relationship between the queries and their results. From this perspective, in this paper, we propose a deep learning-based approach for searching RDF graphs. The proposed approach treats document requests as a classification problem. First, we preprocess the RDF graphs to convert them into N-Triples format. Second, bag-of-words (BOW) and word2vec feature modeling techniques are combined for a novel deep representation of RDF graphs. The attention mechanism enables the proposed approach to understand the semantic between RDF graphs. Third, we train a convolutional neural network for the accurate retrieval of RDF graphs using the deep representation. We employ 10-fold cross-validation to evaluate the proposed approach. The results show that the proposed approach is accurate and surpasses the state-of-the-art. The average accuracy, precision, recall, and f-measure are up to 97.12%, 98.17%, 95.56%, and 96.85%, respectively.

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Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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