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Acta Paediatr. 2020 Mar 23. doi: 10.1111/apa.15270. [Epub ahead of print]

Systematic review of COVID-19 in children shows milder cases and a better prognosis than adults.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
2
Department of Paediatrics, Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden.
3
Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingha, UK.
4
Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.

Abstract

AIM:

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected hundreds of thousands of people. Data on symptoms and prognoses in children are rare.

METHODS:

A systematic literature review was carried out to identify papers on COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using the Medline and EMBASE databases between 1 January and 18 March 2020.

RESULTS:

The search identified 45 relevant scientific papers and letters. The review showed that children have so far accounted for 1-5% of diagnosed COVID-19 cases, they often have milder disease than adults and deaths have been extremely rare. Diagnostic findings have been similar to adults, with fever and respiratory symptoms being prevalent, but fewer children seem to have developed severe pneumonia. Elevated inflammatory markers were less common in children and lymphocytopenia seemed rare. Newborn infants have developed symptomatic COVID-19, but evidence of vertical intrauterine transmission was scarce. Suggested treatment included providing oxygen, inhalations, nutritional support and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances.

CONCLUSIONS:

COVID-19 has occurred in children, but they seemed to have a milder disease course and better prognoses than adults. Deaths were extremely rare.

KEYWORDS:

2019-nCoV; COVID-19; Children; Coronavirus; Newborn; SARS-CoV2

PMID:
32202343
DOI:
10.1111/apa.15270

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