Send to

Choose Destination
Indian J Pharmacol. 2020 Jan-Feb;52(1):39-43. doi: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_279_19. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Cost-effective innovation of locally assembled mannequins for undergraduate skill development in parenteral drug administration.

Author information

Department of Pharmacology, MOSC Medical College, Kochi, Kerala, India.



The new competencybased curriculum for undergraduate medical education by the Medical Council of India mandates simulation using mannequins for teaching parenteral drug administration. Traditional education tends to focus on textbook learning, whereas competencybased education concentrates on the outcomes that directly guide the assessment of learners.


To introduce a module for the development of the core competency of parenteral drug administration using costeffective locally assembled mannequins for handson skill development in administering injections to be assessed using objective structured practical examination (OSPE).


Costeffective and durable fiberglass arms from mannequins used for fashion display were prepared for parenteral drug administration. The padding is easily done with wadding and gauze/crepe bandages, and the assembling requires only 15 minutes per arm. The training can be conducted in the department, giving students adequate opportunity for handson learning on individual arms during the practical sessions. As initial investment and recurring costs are low, it is possible for the department to obtain enough number of mannequins for each student to practice individually on an injection arm.


Students practice injection technique freely, without fear of damaging the mannequin or having to do it on a patient. This helps them to assimilate the steps and sub-steps of doing the task in a much more realistic way and builds their confidence. Assessment of the performance of injection technique, infection control practices, and drug delivery are possible.


We have observed a greater trend toward selflearning and selfefficacy and better adherence to the protocol of injection technique because of the handson training the students receive.


Cost-effective mannequins; injection; parenteral drug administration; performance-based assessment; simulation

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center