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BMC Pulm Med. 2020 Mar 20;20(1):69. doi: 10.1186/s12890-020-1094-1.

Complete regression of pulmonary squamous carcinoma in IPF following gemcitabine plus cisplatin: a case report and literature review.

Author information

1
Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, No.804 Shenglijie, Xingqing District, Yinchuan, 750004, China.
2
Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China.
3
Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, No.804 Shenglijie, Xingqing District, Yinchuan, 750004, China. houj@live.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Lung cancer is one of the most common co-morbid conditions in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and negatively affects the prognosis of IPF; Current guidelines for the management of IPF do not give a clear statement on how to manage these patients, and traditional chemotherapy for lung cancer had a limited efficiency rate. Here, we present a rare case of primary lung squamous carcinoma in a patient with IPF whose tumor completely regressed following gemcitabine plus cisplatin therapy; the cancer was no longer detectable after 2 years upon follow-up.

CASE PRESENTATION:

Sixty-seven year-old male patient with IPF was admitted to hospital due to acute onset hemoptysis. In addition to a definite usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern, a chest CT scan showed a non-enhancing nodular opacity in the right upper lobe and an enhancing nodule in the right lower lobe. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the nodule in the right lower lobe revealed squamous lung cancer. After 2 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin, the tumor in the right lower lobe was no longer detectable after 2 years of follow-up; however, the nodule in the right upper lobe had increased significantly. Finally, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was cultured from the bronchoalveolar (BAL) sample submitted at the last evaluation, and the patient was confirmed to have active pulmonary TB.

CONCLUSION:

We report the first documented case of complete pulmonary squamous carcinoma regression in IPF following gemcitabine plus cisplatin. Traditional chemotherapy is considered inadequate to cause the resulting regression of the tumor. The concomitant active pulmonary tuberculosis possibly underlies the mechanism.

KEYWORDS:

IPF; Lung cancer; NSCLC; Neoplasm regression

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