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Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020 Mar 20. doi: 10.1007/5584_2020_509. [Epub ahead of print]

The Pattern of Sensitization Influences Exhaled and Nasal Nitric Oxide Levels in Young Adults.

Author information

1
Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany. hoffmeyer@ipa-dguv.de.
2
Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany.

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) from upper (nasal NO, nNO) or lower airways (fractional exhaled NO, FeNO) is considered a surrogate marker for Th2-type inflammation, which is influenced by atopy. The aim of this study was to analyze nNO and FeNO in regard to qualitative and quantitative aspects of sensitization. We evaluated 244 non-smoking young adults. All of them were first-year students recruited for a longitudinal study. An inhalation allergy screening tool was used for atopy definition (specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to sx1 ≥ 0.35 kU/L), and also sIgE response to three inhalant perennial allergens, house dust mite (HDM, d1), cat (e1), and dog (e5), was determined in the non-pollen season. With respect to sx1, 100 subjects could be classified as atopic. Sensitization to one, two, or three perennial allergens could be demonstrated in 46, 10, and 16 students, respectively. The subjects with positive IgE response to sx1, but not sensitized to HDM, cat, and/or dog, had FeNO levels comparable to those of non-atopic subjects (13.5 vs. 13.0 ppb, respectively; p = 0.485). These levels were significantly lower compared to atopic subjects being sensitized to any perennial allergen (19.0 ppb; p = 0.0003). After grouping the atopic subjects for perennial sensitization patterns, significantly higher FeNO could be detected in subjects with poly-sensitization (n = 26; 26.0 ppb) compared to the mono-sensitized ones (n = 46; 18.0 ppb; p = 0.023). Regarding nNO, no differences could be observed. Applying a two-way ANOVA, we could reveal a significant correlation of specific HDM-IgE CAP-class with FeNO (p < 0.0001) and nNO levels (p = 0.007). Finally, a significant relationship was found between nNO and FeNO for the whole cohort (p < 0.0001). In summary, our findings support the argument that atopy and perennial sensitization should be considered for the interpretation of NO.

KEYWORDS:

Airway inflammation; Biomarker; Exhaled nitric oxide; Nasal nitric oxide; Sensitization

PMID:
32193864
DOI:
10.1007/5584_2020_509

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