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Global Health. 2020 Mar 19;16(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s12992-020-00548-5.

Uganda's experience in Ebola virus disease outbreak preparedness, 2018-2019.

Aceng JR1, Ario AR2,3, Muruta AN1, Makumbi I1,4, Nanyunja M5, Komakech I5, Bakainaga AN5, Talisuna AO6, Mwesigye C5, Mpairwe AM5, Tusiime JB5, Lali WZ5, Katushabe E5, Ocom F5, Kaggwa M5, Bongomin B5, Kasule H5, Mwoga JN5, Sensasi B5, Mwebembezi E5, Katureebe C5, Sentumbwe O5, Nalwadda R5, Mbaka P5, Fatunmbi BS7, Nakiire L8, Lamorde M8, Walwema R8, Kambugu A8, Nanyondo J8, Okware S1,8, Ahabwe PB8, Nabukenya I1,8, Kayiwa J4, Wetaka MM4, Kyazze S4, Kwesiga B9, Kadobera D9, Bulage L9,10, Nanziri C9, Monje F9, Aliddeki DM9, Ntono V9, Gonahasa D9, Nabatanzi S9, Nsereko G9, Nakinsige A1, Mabumba E1, Lubwama B1, Sekamatte M1, Kibuule M1, Muwanguzi D1, Amone J1, Upenytho GD1, Driwale A1, Seru M1, Sebisubi F1, Akello H1,11, Kabanda R1, Mutengeki DK1, Bakyaita T1, Serwanjja VN1, Okwi R1, Okiria J1, Ainebyoona E1, Opar BT1, Mimbe D12, Kyabaggu D13, Ayebazibwe C14, Sentumbwe J14, Mwanja M14, Ndumu DB14, Bwogi J15, Balinandi S15, Nyakarahuka L15, Tumusiime A15, Kyondo J15, Mulei S15, Lutwama J15, Kaleebu P15, Kagirita A16, Nabadda S16, Oumo P17, Lukwago R18, Kasozi J19, Masylukov O20, Kyobe HB21, Berdaga V22, Lwanga M22, Opio JC22, Matseketse D22, Eyul J23, Oteba MO11, Bukirwa H10, Bulya N10, Masiira B10, Kihembo C10, Ohuabunwo C10, Antara SN10, Owembabazi W24, Okot PB25, Okwera J25, Amoros I26, Kajja V27, Mukunda BS27, Sorela I27, Adams G24, Shoemaker T28, Klena JD28, Taboy CH28, Ward SE29, Merrill RD29, Carter RJ30, Harris JR31, Banage F31, Nsibambi T31, Ojwang J31, Kasule JN31, Stowell DF31, Brown VR31, Zhu BP31, Homsy J31, Nelson LJ31, Tusiime PK1, Olaro C1, Mwebesa HG1, Woldemariam YT5.

Author information

1
Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.
2
Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda. riolexus@musph.ac.ug.
3
Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda. riolexus@musph.ac.ug.
4
Public Health Emergency Operations Centre, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.
5
World Health Organisation, Country Office, Kampala, Uganda.
6
World Health Organization - AFRO, Brazzaville, Congo.
7
World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland.
8
Infectious Disease Institute, Kampala, Uganda.
9
Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.
10
African Field Epidemiology Network, Kampala, Uganda.
11
Management Sciences for Health, Kampala, Uganda.
12
Makerere University Walter Reed Project, Kampala, Uganda.
13
East African Public Health Laboratory Network, Kampala, Uganda.
14
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Entebbe, Uganda.
15
Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda.
16
Uganda National Health Laboratory Services, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.
17
Ministry of Internal Affairs, Uganda Police Force, Kampala, Uganda.
18
Department for International Development, UKAID, Kampala, Uganda.
19
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Kampala, Uganda.
20
World Food Program, Kampala, Uganda.
21
African Risk Capacity, Kampala, Uganda.
22
United Nations Children's Fund, Kampala, Uganda.
23
Civil Aviation Authority, Entebbe, Uganda.
24
United States Agency for International Development, Kampala, Uganda.
25
Uganda Red Cross Society, Kampala, Uganda.
26
Medicines San Frontiers, Kampala, Uganda.
27
Intenational Organisation for Migration, Kampala, Uganda.
28
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
29
Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Global Border Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
30
Global Immunization Division, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
31
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kampala, Uganda.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Since the declaration of the 10th Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in DRC on 1st Aug 2018, several neighboring countries have been developing and implementing preparedness efforts to prevent EVD cross-border transmission to enable timely detection, investigation, and response in the event of a confirmed EVD outbreak in the country. We describe Uganda's experience in EVD preparedness.

RESULTS:

On 4 August 2018, the Uganda Ministry of Health (MoH) activated the Public Health Emergency Operations Centre (PHEOC) and the National Task Force (NTF) for public health emergencies to plan, guide, and coordinate EVD preparedness in the country. The NTF selected an Incident Management Team (IMT), constituting a National Rapid Response Team (NRRT) that supported activation of the District Task Forces (DTFs) and District Rapid Response Teams (DRRTs) that jointly assessed levels of preparedness in 30 designated high-risk districts representing category 1 (20 districts) and category 2 (10 districts). The MoH, with technical guidance from the World Health Organisation (WHO), led EVD preparedness activities and worked together with other ministries and partner organisations to enhance community-based surveillance systems, develop and disseminate risk communication messages, engage communities, reinforce EVD screening and infection prevention measures at Points of Entry (PoEs) and in high-risk health facilities, construct and equip EVD isolation and treatment units, and establish coordination and procurement mechanisms.

CONCLUSION:

As of 31 May 2019, there was no confirmed case of EVD as Uganda has continued to make significant and verifiable progress in EVD preparedness. There is a need to sustain these efforts, not only in EVD preparedness but also across the entire spectrum of a multi-hazard framework. These efforts strengthen country capacity and compel the country to avail resources for preparedness and management of incidents at the source while effectively cutting costs of using a "fire-fighting" approach during public health emergencies.

KEYWORDS:

Disease outbreaks; Ebola; Epidemic preparedness; Global Health security; Uganda; Viral Haemorrhagic fever

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