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AIDS Rev. 2020 Feb 13:1-10. doi: 10.24875/AIDSRev.20000101. [Epub ahead of print]

Adherence to HIV Care and Associated Health Functioning among Youth Living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island.
2
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
3
Department of Health Behavior and Health Systems, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.

Abstract

Older adolescents and young adults (youth) living with HIV (YLH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are at high risk for poor HIV treatment adherence and associated negative health outcomes including viral nonsuppression. To describe this risk, we conducted a comprehensive review of studies involving YLH. Eligible studies compared youth adherence or adherence-related health functioning to older or younger samples, examined factors associated with adherence or health outcomes among YLH, or evaluated adherence interventions with YLH. Databases searched included MEDLINE, Web of Science, Global Health, CINAHL, Africa-Wide Information, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library. Of the 7054 articles found, 156 were reviewed and 130 were eligible. Across 16 adherence-related behaviors or health outcomes such as lost to follow-up, retention in care, antiretroviral use, CD4 count, viral suppression, and mortality, 73% of studies comparing YLH to other age groups (n = 106) found worse outcomes among YLH. In 22 studies, barriers and facilitators to adherence were identified, some unique to YLH (e.g., conflicting treatment expectations of providers) and some common to other age groups. Finally, of the eight adherence interventions with YLH reviewed, five showed evidence of being effective. Our findings suggest that YLH in SSA faces numerous obstacles to engaging in HIV treatment across a range of shifting social contexts. Accounting for this group's transition to treatment self-management, developmentally tailored and holistic interventions should be the focus of adherence promotion efforts.

KEYWORDS:

Adherence; Adolescent; Africa South of the Sahara; HIV; Young adult

PMID:
32180589
DOI:
10.24875/AIDSRev.20000101

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